The typical click chemistry reaction is the Copper-catalyzed reaction of an azide with an alkyne to form a 5-membered heteroatom ring, it also name a Cu(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC). The azide of alkyne functional groups should be specially introduced into DNA and proteins. Alkyne-containing DNA can be prepared with alkyne phosphoramidite during standard oligo synthesis. Proteins labeled with azide and alkyne can be made using azide activated ester and alkyne activated ester. Aqueous DMSO, DMF, acetonitrile, alcohols, or pure water and buffers can be used for the reaction. The reaction is biocompatible and can take place in living cells.
THPTA is a water soluble ligand for Cu(I) catalyzed Click chemistry. The ligand stabilizes copper in its Cu(I) oxidation state. Due to high aqueous solubility, reactions with this ligand do not require an organic co-solvent.