Full pallete of lipophilic tracers

Lipophilic carbocyanine dyes are cyanine fluorescent dyes bearing hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. These dyes exhibit low fluorescence in an aqueous environment but show high fluorescence when incorporated into lipid bilayers, which makes them valuable for staining membranes. These dyes have been employed as tracers in investigations involving cell fusion, cellular adhesion, and migration due to their minimal toxicity and strong resistance to transfer between cells. Additionally, these dyes are widely used as anterograde and retrograde axonal tracers in living and fixed neuronal tissues and cells.

Lumiprobe offers a range of carbocyanine dyes with different membrane diffusion rates, solubility, and fluorescence properties:


DiI (DiIC18(3))

A bright and photostable orange-red fluorescent lipophilic dye widely used for membrane labeling, cell tracking, axonal tracing, and super-resolution imaging by STORM.


DiO (DiOC18(3))

A widely used green fluorescent lipophilic dye with a slower lateral diffusion rate on the membranes than DiI. DiO is often used together with DiI in dual-color studies.


DiA (4-Di-16-ASP)

A yellow-green fluorescent lipophilic dye that diffuses much faster than DiO in cell membranes. DiA is often used together with DiI for dual-color labeling.


DiD (DiIC18(5))

An analog of DiI with red-shifted fluorescence excitation and emission spectra allowing to avoid autofluorescence and phototoxic effects during imaging. The dye is used for multicolor labeling and super-resolution imaging by STORM.


DiR (DiIC18(7))

A near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent lipophilic dye. The NIR region of the spectrum is optically transparent for many tissues so that DiR can be used for small animal in vivo imaging and super-resolution microscopy by STORM.



A green fluorescent lipophilic carbocyanine dye. In contrast to DiO, Neuro-DiO has been specifically designed to improve solubility in membranes and prevent the formation of nonfluorescent aggregates, which tend to decrease the dye diffusion rate.


RAPID DiI (dilinoleyl DiI; FAST DiI™)

An unsaturated analog of DiI with a faster lateral diffusion rate in cell membranes than the original DiI. It is especially useful for tracing neurons both in live and fixed tissues.


RAPID DiO (dilinoleyl DiO; FAST DiO™)

An unsaturated analog of DiO with a faster lateral diffusion rate in cell membranes than the original DiO. It is especially useful for tracing neurons both in live and fixed tissues.



An orange-red fluorescent carbocyanine dye containing thiol-reactive chloromethyl (CM) moiety. Unlike other membrane dyes, CM-DiI has increased water solubility and can be fixed using traditional aldehyde fixatives. CM-DiI also persists in cells after permeabilization procedures.

Набор пробников

Lipophilic Tracer Sampler Kit

Lipophilic Tracer Sampler Kit contains samplers of eight carbocyanine dyes: DiI, DiO, DiA, DiD, DiR, Neuro-DiO, RAPID DiI, RAPID DiO.

Key properties of lipophilic carbocyanine tracers are summarized here:

Tracer Excita­tion, nm Emission, nm Fast migration Fixable
DiO 487 501 No No
Neuro-DiO 497 514 No No
RAPID DiO 487 501 Yes No
DiA 492 607 No No
DiI 551 566 No No
RAPID DiI 551 565 Yes No
CM-DiI 556 571 No Yes
DiD 647 666 No No
DiR 750 775 No No

FAST DiI™ and FAST DiO™ are registered trademarks of Invitrogen™.

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